Sill, Lintel and Chejja : A window frame should not be directly placed over masonry. It is placed over 50 mm to 75 mm thick plain concrete course provided over the masonry. This course is called as sill.
- Lintels are the R.C.C. or stone beams provided over the door and window openings to transfer the load transversely so as to see that door or window frame is not stressed unduly. The width of lintels is equal to the width of wall while thickness to be provided depends upon the opening size.
- Chejja is the projection given outside the wall to protect doors and windows from the rain. They are usually made with R.C.C. In low cost houses stone slabs are provided as chejjas. The projection of chejja varies from 600 mm to 800 mm. Sometimes drops are also provided to chejjas to improve acsethetic look and also to get additional protection from sun and rain.
Doors and Windows:
- The function of a door is to give access to different rooms in the building and to deny the access whenever necessary.
- Number of doors should be minimum possible.
- The size of the door should be of such dimension as will facilitate the movement of the largest object likely to use the door.
- Windows are provided to get light and ventilation in the building.
- They are located at a height of 0.75 m to 0.9 m from the floor level. In hot and humid regions, the window area should be 15 to 20 % of the floor area.
- Another thumb rule used to determine the size and the number of windows is for every 30 m3 of inside volume there should be 1 m2 window opening.
- Floors are the important component of a building.
- They give working/useful area for the occupants.
- The ground floor is prepared by filling brick bats, waste stones, gravel and well compacted
with not less than 100 mm sand layer on its top.
- A lean concrete of 1 : 4 : 8, 100 mm thick is laid. On this a damp proof course may be provided. Then floor finishing is done as per the requirement of the owner.
- Cheapest floor finish for a moderate house is with 20 to 25 mm rich mortar course finished with red
- The costliest floor finish is mossaic or marble finishing. Other floors are usually of R.C.C. finished as per the requirements of the owner.