Wrought iron

It is almost pure iron. It contains less than 0.15% carbon. Attempts are made to reduce the other impurities during the process of manufacturing. ¬† Properties of Wrought Iron: 1. Its ultimate compressive strength is 200 N/mm2 and ultimate tensile strength is 375 N/mm2. 2. It is ductile and brittle. […]

Dimensional Coordination

Dimensional Coordination ~ the practical aims of this concept are to : – Size components so as to avoid the wasteful process of cutting and fitting on site. Obtain maximum economy in the production of components. Reduce the need for the manufacture of special sizes. Increase the effective choice of […]

Modular Coordination

Modular Coordination ~ a module can be defined as a basic dimension which could for example form the basis of a planning grid in terms of multiples and submultiples of the standard module. Typical Modular Coordinated Planning Grid ~ Let M = the standard module : Structural Grid ~ used […]


The two principal types of planar structural elements are the load-bearing wall and the horizontal slab. A bearing wall acts as a long¬† thin column in transmitting compressive forces to its support or foundation Window and door openings within a bearing wall tend to weaken its structural integrity. Any opening […]

Building Envelope & Building Services

Building Envelope: The building envelope consists of exterior walls, windows, doors, and roof, which protect and shelter interior spaces from the exterior environment. Interior walls, partitions, and ceilings subdivide and define interior space. Many of these components are nonstructural in nature and carry no loads other than their own weight. […]